Just in time for the school year, I read a book called Make it Stick: The Science of Successful Learning, written by Peter Brown, Henry L. Roediger III, and Mark McDaniel. Two of these authors are cognitive scientists, and the third is a writer. This book should be required reading for all teachers and students--so many ideas about how to become better learners.
The three learning tips for students involve retrieval practice (quizzing yourself as you read, making connections or elaborations to hold knowledge longer), spacing out this retrieval practice (cramming may work in the short term, but it's crap for long-term retention and conceptual understanding), and interleaving the study of different problem types, which refers to moving away from massed practice of one concept before moving onto another.
I will be referring to this book frequently in all of my classes, especially the first few weeks.
I also love the John McPhee called his first drafts "awful blurting."